Informative Articles About Our Research

Tier 3 sulfur credit price doubles in May

Demand for Tier 3 sulfur credits caused the price to double in May. The best offer is now triple the ...
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Watch the coming spike in Tier 3 sulfur credits

Tier 2 sulfur credits spiked 50-fold, then D6 RINs spiked 50-fold, now the Tier 3 sulfur credit spike is imminent. ...
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The Tier 3 investments that never occurred

See this excerpt from Gasoline Desulfurization for Tier 3 Compliance on $3 billion of capital investments needed to produce Tier ...
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Why are gasoline prices so high?

We don't have a shortage of gasoline. We have a shortage of marketable gasoline. This chart, from an Argus Media ...
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US Refiners face gasoline sulfur/octane pinch with Tier 3

Two key findings from Hoekstra Trading's 3-year research project on Tier 3 (10 ppm sulfur) gasoline were: The octane destruction ...
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Fuel economics – Why do Renewable Identification Number (RIN) costs pass through to fuel price?

A 9-year, multi-billion dollar legal dispute between EPA and refiners is rooted in disagreements about fuel economics. One of the ...
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Refiners rebuffed again on RIN price passthrough part 3 – does this wipe out 1/3 of small refiners’ value?

In Thursday's denial of 36 petitions for small refinery exemptions to their Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) obligations for the 2018 ...
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For making clean fuels, 14 US refineries bite the dust

By clean fuels here, I mean conventional (not renewable) clean gasoline and clean diesel that meet clean fuel specifications for ...
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Refiners rebuffed again on RIN price pass-through – part 2

Yesterday, EPA denied 36 petitions from refiners seeking small refinery exemptions (SRE) to their Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) obligations for ...
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Why are (were?) we importing oil from Russia?

In 2021, the US imported 700,000 barrels per day (BPD) of crude and refined products from Russia. Of this, 220,000 ...
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